With the development of human society, economy and science and technology, the zipper has developed from the initial metal material to the non-metal material, single-function single function to multi-variety and multi-special comprehensive functions, from simple construction to today's delicate and beautiful, colorful, after a long period of Evolution. Its performance, structure and materials are changing with each passing day. It is widely used in aerospace, aviation, military, medical, civil and other fields. Small zippers play an increasingly important role in people's lives, and increasingly show its importance. Sex and vitality. The zipper, one of the ten most practical inventions of humanity in this century, has been included in the annals of history.
History of invention
The zipper is also called a zipper. It is one of the top ten inventions that facilitate people's lives in modern times. The appearance of the zipper was a century ago. At that time, in some parts of central Europe, people tried to replace the buttons and bows by means of belts, hooks and loops, so they began the experiment of developing zippers. The zipper was first used in military uniforms. In the First World War, the US military ordered a large number of zippers for the first time to make clothing for soldiers. However, the promotion of zippers in the private sector was relatively late, and it was not accepted by women until 1930 to replace the buttons of clothing.
According to reports, a novelist named Franco said at a luncheon in the business community that promoted a zipper sample: "One pull, it will open! Once again, it will be closed!" Very concisely Explain the characteristics of the zipper. The word zipper comes like this. The prototype of the zipper was originally derived from the boots that people wore. In the mid-nineteenth century, long boots were very popular. They were especially suitable for roads with mud or horse excrement. However, the disadvantage is that there are more than 20 iron hook buttons on the boots, which is extremely time-consuming. This shortcoming has left the inventor with a headache and cost the sponsor a lot of money and patience. In order to avoid the trouble of wearing long boots, people even endure wearing boots for a whole day without taking off. Finally, in 1851, American Elias Howe applied for a patent similar to zipper design, but it was not commercialized and even forgotten for half a century. In 1893 (1883), an American engineer named Judson (Kuwaiti) developed a "sliding device" and obtained a patent, which was the original prototype of the zipper. The appearance of this device has had an impact on the button hooks used on high boots. However, this invention did not become popular very quickly. The main reason was that the quality of this early locking device was not good enough to be easily released at an inappropriate time and place, which was embarrassing.
In 1913, the Swedish Sambak improved this rough locking device, making it a reliable commodity. The method he used was to attach the metal locking teeth to a flexible shaft. This zipper works on the principle that each tooth is a small hook that matches the eyelet underneath a small tooth on the other strap that is next to each other. This zipper is very strong and can only be pulled apart when the slider slides to open the tooth. It was only in the 1890s that there was a turnaround. One of the mechanical engineers from Chicago, Whitcomb L. Judson, came up with a slider-device to fit and separate. Two rows of buttons (this principle is similar to the zipper, but the term [zipper] has only appeared after 30 years). Judith’s invention was fortunate to receive financial support from Pennsylvania lawyer Lewis Walker. Walker is highly interested in Judith's new design.
During the First World War, the US economy was very sluggish. Steel was five cents per pound. Workers earned six dollars a week. The company reduced its layoffs, leaving only Sunbeck and another person, Senbeck. Manager and engineer. The company's economy has encountered unprecedented difficulties. In order to repay the thousands of dollars of the Berber company that provided the steel wire in arrears, Senbeck had to repair a machine to produce paper clips to make money. Fortunately, sponsors are always on the scene, and the writer's father, James O'Neill, was on tour of TheCount of Monte Cristo, and he felt great about Senbeck's zipper zipper. interest.
Although there was a turning point in the career, Senbeck personally suffered an unprecedented blow, and his wife died of dystocia. Senbeck is more sad and more focused on improving the zipper. In 1913 he applied for a patent again, and the patent license was approved in 1917 (patent number 1219881). Walker called the patent a "hiddenhook" and is optimistic about the future. Walker renamed the company "HooklessFastener Company" and the factory moved to Meadville.
Senbeck further improved the hook-free button, the shape of the tooth was changed to a spoon shape, the top end was convex, and the end was concave. When the sliding device slided, the left and right "toothed portions" were fitted, and then the sliding back was separated. "No hook type two" and designed a machine for making the toothed portion. In 1913 he officially announced that this technology was broken. "American Science" used the patent of Senbeck as the cover story. Six months later, Senbeck is preparing to mass-produce the button, and the No. 2 No. 2 is ready for listing. Walker’s second son also spent eight years working on the improvement of hook-free buttons. In 1907, Josephine Calhoun of Florida applied for a patent similar to a safety zipper. In the same year, Frank Canfielt of Colorado also applied for a patent. The inventors who are dedicated to this research are not only in the United States, but the closest to Senbeck's final products are the patents of Zurich's Katharina Kuhn-Moos and Henri Forster in 1912, but none of them. Like the no-hook type 2 becomes a commodity.
The demand of the market determines the success or failure of the product. There are not many orders at the beginning of the unhooked second. The Mcreery department store in Pittsburgh believes that the hookless No. 2 is suitable for use in skirts and suits. Manufacturers are required to use the No. 2 No. 2, but there are not many followers, and they are afraid to take risks. In order to win customers, Senbeck constantly improves the performance of the zipper to meet the needs.
Medwell's factory manufacturing technology is becoming more and more sophisticated, with 1,630 hookless No. 2 manufactured every day, and there are no defective products, resulting in an increasing order. The First World War also brought new opportunities to new products. The military’s money belts increased the demand for the hookless No. 2; the Air Force flight packs use the hookless No. 2 to save material and improve wind protection. The Navy's life jackets also use the No. 2 No. The government has therefore specifically allocated metal materials for production.
Although the hookless No. 2 is proved to be easy to use, but the price is still high, it is still not popular. Senbeck understands this and is committed to reducing production costs and improving manufacturing efficiency. He invented the S-L machine to reduce unnecessary waste of materials during the production process, as long as the original raw material is 41c/o. After reducing production costs, the first product to be applied was the Locktite Tobacco Bag. The result was quite successful. At the end of 1921, the number of unhooked No. 2 required by tobacco companies reached an unprecedented number each week. In order to adapt to high demand, the hook-free button company has added a new factory.
In 1921, B.F. Goodrich Company ordered a small amount of products from the hook-free button company for the rubber overshoes they produced. After the trial, the results were found to be good, and a large number of orders were ordered, and the defects found were notified to the hookless button company. The company has been modified to launch MysteryBoot, which is characterized by being able to wear or take off with a single pull.
The marketer was not satisfied with the name of the wonderful boots. He wanted to find a name that would show his characteristics. The manager was inspired by the moment. He thought of the imitation of "Zip", the sound of fast moving objects, and renamed the wonderful boots as zippers. Zipper boots (shown in Figure 2), this year was 1923, and later "Zipper" - "zipper" became the general term for all similar hook-free button products. Unfortunately, Judith died in 1909. He never heard the term "zipper" before, nor did he see the success of his invention in the world.
In the winter of that year, Haofu Company sold nearly 500,000 pairs of zipper boots. At least in the middle of the 1920s, it bought at least one million zippers to the hookless button company. The hookless button company felt the word "no hook". With negative associations, the word "zipper" was created by Haofu Company. Therefore, the term "Talon" was also coined. In 1937, the company changed its name to Eagle Claw.
Before 1930, the hookless button company sold 20 million "eagle claws" per year, ranging from pen cases to motorboat hoods. However, the garment industry is still waiting to be used. In the mid-1930s, fashion designer Elsa Schiaparelli used the "Eagle Claw" for the first time. "New Yorker" (New Yorker) described the 1935 Spring Fashion Show as "full of zippers." Since then, the garment industry has gradually adopted zippers.
The manufacturing technology of zippers has gradually spread around the world with the spread of products. Switzerland, Germany and other European countries, Japan, China and other Asian countries have begun to establish zipper production workshops. In 1917, the zipper was introduced to Japan. At that time, the zipper was scarce, and it could only be used as an accessory to show off its identity. In the early days of the Showa era in Japan in 1927, the Onomichi people in Hiroshima began to manufacture zippers, and began to sell them under the “Jack Card” trademark. At the time, the zipper was known for its durability, so the "clamp" became synonymous with zippers. So far, the Japanese still call the "zipper" a "clamp".
In 1932, Japan began to make large quantities of zippers by hand. Since eccentric manual punching machines and the like were continuously developed at the time, the zippers were able to be mass-produced, the price was gradually reduced, and the garment and luggage industry began to use zippers, making the industry's outlook very active. In 1934, zipper products from Shanghai, Hong Kong and the United States began to export in bulk. The "Three S Chamber of Commerce", the predecessor of Japan Yoshida Industry Co., Ltd., was founded on January 1st of this year. After 1937, North American and Central and South American zippers were sold in large quantities. Zippers have finally emerged in the form of emerging industries, and zippers have also become an important player in the Japanese industry. However, the Pacific War broke out in 1941, and Japan eventually became a defeated country. The war brought devastating blows to Japanese domestic industry, including the zipper industry. At that time, except for some military zippers, other workshops were almost forced to change jobs. Waste industry.